Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS – A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the causal study of etiology.Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs
Detailed About Human Diseases For Railway SSC CGL SSC CHSL And SSC CPO Exams .Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

What is a disease?

  • Any condition which interferes with the normal functioning of the body is called a disease.
  • In other words, disease may be defined as a disorder in the physical, physiological, psychological or social state of a person caused due to nutritional deficiency, physiological disorder, genetic disorder, pathogen or any other reason.

Types of Diseases

The diseases may be classified into two broad categories

Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

A. Congenital disease : The disease which is present from birth (e.g. hole in the heart in infants). They are caused by some genetic abnormality or metabolic disorder or malfunctioning of an organ.

B. Acquired disease : The disease which may occur after birth during one’s lifetime.

Acquired diseases may generally be classified into :

(i) Infectious diseases : The diseases which can be transmitted from person to person e.g. measles.

(ii) Degenerative diseases : The diseases caused by the malfunction of some vital organs of the body e.g. heart failure.

(iii) Deficiency diseases : These are caused due to nutritional deficiency such as that of minerals or vitamins in the diet e.g. anaemia (Fe, Beri- beri (vitamin B). You have read about such diseases in an earlier lesson 27. (iv) Cancer : This is an abnormal, uncontrolled and unwanted growth of cells. e.g. breast cancer.

Acquired diseases are studied under two categories

 (i) Communicable diseases : The diseases which can be transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person.

(ii) Non-communicable diseases : These diseases do not spread from an affected person to a healthy person

Modes of Spread of Communicable Diseases Communicable diseases spread from the infected person to a healthy person in the following ways.

Direct transmission The pathogens of diseases infect a healthy person directly without an intermediate agent. It can take place by various means such as,

  1. Direct contact between the infected person and the healthy person : Diseases like small pox, chicken pox, syphilis, gonorrhoea spread through direct contact.
  2. Droplet infection : The infected person throws out tiny droplets of mucus by coughing, sneezing or spitting. These droplets may contain the pathogen. By inhaling the air containing the droplets, a healthy person may get the infection. Diseases like common cold, pneumonia, influenza, measles, tuberculosis and whooping cough spread through droplet infection.
  3. Contact with soil contaminated with disease-causing viruses, bacteria etc.
  4. Animal bite : Viruses of rabies are introduced through the wound caused by the bite of rabid animals, especially dogs. The virus is present in the saliva of the rabid animals.

Indirect transmission

The pathogens of certain diseases reach the human body through some intermediate agents. It can take place by various means, which are as follows :

  1. By vectors such as houseflies, mosquitoes, and cockroaches. Examples: Houseflies carry the causative organisms of cholera on their legs and mouth parts from the faeces and sputum of infected persons to food and drinks and contaminate them. When this contaminated food is taken by a healthy person, he gets the infection. Similarly, mosquitoes carry virus of dengue and malarial parasite which causes malaria.
  2. Air-borne : The pathogens may reach humans with air and dust. The epidemic typhus spreads by inhalation of dried faeces of infected fly.
  3. Object borne (Fonite borne) : Many diseases are transmitted through the use of contaminated articles, such as clothes, utensils, toys, door handles, taps, syringes and surgical instruments, etc.
  4. Water borne : If potable water (drinking water) is contaminated with pathogens of diseases such as cholera, diarhhoea, hepatitis or jaundice, it reaches a healthy person upon consuming such water.

SOME IMPORTANT TERMS TO REMEMBER-Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

  • Pathogen : A living organism which causes a disease.
  • Parasite : An organism which gets food and shelter from host.
  • Host : The living body on or inside which the disease-producing organism takes shelter.
  • Infestation : A large number of parasitic organisms present on the surface of body of the host or on the clothings.
  • Vector : It is an organism which harbours a pathogen and may pass it on to another person to cause a disease (Mosquitoes harbour malarial parasite and transmits it to humans).
  • Carrier : It is an organism which itself does not harbour the pathogen but physically transmits it to another person (Housefly is the carrier of cholera germs).
  • Reservoir : An organism which harbours pathogen in large numbers and does not suffer itself.
  • Epidemic : Spreading of a disease among a large number of people in the same place for some time e.g. plague.
  • Endemic : A disease which is regularly found among a particular group of people e.g. goitre.
  • Pandemic : A disease which is found all over the world e.g. AIDS.
  • Interferon : Type of proteins produced by infected cells of the body when attacked by a virus, which act to prevent the further development of the virus.
  • Inoculation : Introduction of antigenic material inside the body to prevent suffering from a disease.
  • Vaccination : Injection of a weak strain of a specific bacterium (Vaccine) in order to secure immunity against the corresponding disease. It is also called immunisation.
  • Incubation period : The period between entry of pathogen inside a healthy body and appearance of the symptoms of the disease. Symptoms : Specific expressions which appear on the diseased and help in the identification of the disease

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES (INFECTIOUS DISEASES)

The diseases which spread from one person to another through contaminated food, water or contact or through insecticides, animals etc. are called the communicable diseases. These are caused by different causative agents (pathogens).

Diseases caused by viruses

  • Chicken pox Pathogen : Chicken pox virus (varicella)
  • Mode of transmission : By contact or through scabs
  • Incubation period : 12-20 days

Symptoms

  • Fever, headache and loss of appetite
  • Dark red-coloured rash on the back and chest which spreads on the whole body. Later, rashes change into vessicles.
  • After few days these vessicles start drying up and scabs (crusts) are formed.
  • These scabs start falling (infective stage)

Prevention and cure

There is no vaccine against chicken pox as yet. But precautions must be taken as follows:

  1. The patient should be kept in isolation.
  2. Clothings, utencils, etc. used by the patient should be sterilised.
  3. Fallen scabs should be collected and burnt. One attack of chicken pox gives life long immunity to the person recovered from this disease

Measles

  • Pathogen : Virus (Rubeola)
  • Mode of transmission : By air
  • Incubation period : 3-5 days

Symptoms

  • Common cold
  • Appearance of small white patches in mouth and throat.
  • Appearance of rashes on the body.

Prevention and cure

  • The patient should be kept in isolation.
  • Cleanliness should be maintained.
  • Antibiotics check only the secondary infections which can easily occur

Poliomylitis

  • Pathogen : Polio Virus
  • Mode of transmissions : Virus enters inside the body through food or water.
  • Incubation period : 7-14 days

Symptoms

  • The virus multi pliesin intestinal cells and then reaches the brain through blood.
  • It damages brain and nerves and causes infantile paralysis.
  • Stiffness of neck, fever, loss of head support.

Prevention and Cure

  • Polio vaccine drop (oral polio vaccine, OPV) are given to children at certain
    intervals.
  • Pulse polio programme is organised in our country to give polio vaccine to
    children

Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

Diseases Caused by Protozoa 

DiseaseSymptoms MosquitoAffected OrganParasitesCarrier
MalariaFever with shiveringRBC & LiverPlasmodiumFemale Anophelies
PyorrhoeaBlleeding from GumsGumsEntamoeba gingivelis–           
Sleeping SicknessFever with severe sleepBrainTrypanosomaTse – Tse files
DiarrhoeaMucous & diarrohea with blood.IntestineEntamoeba Histolytica
Kala- ajarHigh FeverBone marrowLeismania donovaniSand Files
Malignant malaria is pernicious malaria.

Charles Leveran discovered the Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium in the blood of the affected person in the year 1880.

Ronald Ross (1897) confirmed the Malaria is caused by Malaria parasite and told the mosquito is the carrier of it.

Diseases Caused By Bacteria :

DiseaseName of the BacteriaSymptomsAffected Organ
TetanusClostridium TetaniHigh feve, spasm in body, closing of Jaws etc..Nervous System
CholeraVibrio CholeraeContinuous stool and vomitingIntestine
TyphoidSalmonella typhiaHigh fever and headacheIntestine
TuberculosisMycobacerium tuberculosisRepeated coughingLungs
DiphtheriaCorynebacterium diptheriaeDifficulty In respiration and suffocationRespiratory tube
PlaguePasteurella pestiesVery high fever, muscular eruptions on the bodyLungs, area between the two legs
Whopping coughHemophilis pertusisContinuous coughingRespiratory system
pneumoniaDiplococcus pneumoniaHigh fever, swelling in lungsLungs
LeprosyMycobacterium lepraeSpots on body, nervous affectedNervous system skin
GonorrheaNeisseria GonorrhoeaeSwelling in urinary pathUrinary Path
SyphilisTreponema pallidumWounds In urinogenial tractUrinary Path

Note: In the year 1882, german scientist Robert koch discovered the bacteria of Cholera and T.B.

Birds Flu is a diseases that affects human beings and spread through poultry.

If waste material contaminate the source of drinking water, the most probability to spread the diseases is Typhoid.

Vaccine: it is a biological preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen which provides active acquired immunity to the body for a particular diseases.
Vaccination: Administration of vaccine to stimulate an individual`s immune system to develop immunity to a pathogen.

VaccineName of disease
DTPDiptheria, Pertussis, tetanus given to child up to one year
BCG`Bacillus, Calmatte – Guerin. It provide immunization against tuberculosis given to the child up to one to four month
OPV (polio)Oral polio vaccine is given to the child from 2 months to 6 year

Louis Pasteur discovered the vaccine of Rabies and Pasteurization of milk.

Disease caused by Viruses

DiseaseName of VirusAffected OrganSymptoms
AIDSHIVDefensive system (WBC)Immune system of body became weak
Dengue feverBillions of virusWhole body, particularly head, eyes and jointsPain in eyes, muscles, head and joints
PolioPolio virusThroat, backbone NerveFever,body pain, backbone and intestine cells are destroyed
Influenza (flu)Mixo virusWhole bodySuffocation, sneezing, restlessness
Chiken poxVariola virusWhole BodyHigh fever, radish eruption on body
Small poxVaricella virusWhole BodyLight fever, eruption of bile on body
GointreParathyroid glantDifficulty in opening the mouth with fever
MeaslesMorbeli virusWhole body Radish eruption on body
TrachomaEyesRaddish eyes, pain In eyes
Hepatitis or JaundiceLiverYellow urine, Eyes and skin become yellow.
RabiesRabies virusNervous systemThe patient becomes mad with sever headache and high fever
MeningitisBrainHigh fever
HerpesHerpesSkinSwelling in skin

Note: Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome.Elisha Test: Test of HIV virus (AIDS).

Medical Instrument

Pacemaker
  • It is a small device that is placed in the chest to control abnormal heart beat.
Computed Tomography scan (CT scan)
  • Used to Investigate abnormal functioning of the body.
Electro cardiography (ECG)
  • To find out the abnormal of heart.
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) : Use to detect malfunctioning of brain.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Use to find out any abnormality in the whole body.
Auto analyser
  • Use to examine glucose, area and cholestrole.

Diseases caused by Protozoa :Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

Diarrhoea
  • The reason of this disease is the presence of internal protozoa namely Entamoeba histolytica which is spread through house files. It causes wounds in the instestine. Protein digesting enzyme, trypsin is destroyed in this. This is mostly found in children. Disease caused by helminthes
Filarial 
  • This disease is caused by Wuchereia baoncrofti. This worm is transmitted by the stings of culex mosquitoes. This disease causes swelling in legs, testes and other parts of the body. This disease also known as Elephantiasis.

Diseases caused by fungus 

Asthma
  • the spores of the fungi, namely Aspergillus fumigates reaches the lungs of the human and constitutes a net like formation, thus, obstructs the function of lungs. This is a infectious disease.
Athlete`s foot
  • This disease is caused by the fungi namely tenia Pedes. This is a infectious disease of skin which spreads mainly due to the cracking of feet.
Scabies
  • This disease caused by fungi namely Acarus Scabies. In this disease the skin itches and white spots found on the skin.
Baldness
  • This is caused by the fungi namely Taenia capitis. Due to this hair of the head falls.
Ringworm
  • This disease spreads through the fungi namely Trycophyton Lercossum. This is infectious disease. Round red spot found on the skin.

Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS -Human Diseases Pdf Download Notes For SSC CGL 2017,UPSC,NDA,CDS

 

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